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  • 41 Lessons

    Language Arts 3rd Grade

    Minnesota Academic Standards: Grade 3 Skills available for Minnesota third-grade language arts standards Section Reading: Literature Reading: Informational Text Reading: Foundational Skills Writing Language RL Reading: Literature Key Ideas and Details 3.1.1.1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. Inference 1. Draw inferences from a text Story elements 2. Identify story elements Reading comprehension 3. Read fantasy with illustrations 4. Read historical fiction with illustrations 5. Read science fiction with illustrations 6. Read realistic fiction with illustrations 7. Read realistic fiction: set 1 8. Read realistic fiction: set 2 Poetry 9. Read poetry 3.1.2.2 Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text. 1. Determine the themes of myths, fables, and folktales 2. Identify story elements 3.1.3.3 Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events. 1. Use actions and dialogue to understand characters Craft and Structure 3.1.4.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language, including figurative language such as similes. Academic vocabulary 1. Use academic vocabulary in context Vocabulary in context 2. Read realistic fiction: set 1 3. Read realistic fiction: set 2 4. Determine the meaning of words using synonyms in context 5. Use context to identify the meaning of a word Similes 6. Similes with pictures 7. Determine the meanings of similes Multiple-meaning words 8. Which definition matches the sentence? 9. Which sentence matches the definition? Figures of speech 10. Read poetry 3.1.5.5 Refer to parts of stories, dramas, and poems when writing or speaking about a text, using terms such as chapter, scene, and stanza; describe how each successive part builds on earlier sections. 3.1.6.6 Distinguish their own point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters. 1. Distinguish characters' points of view Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 3.1.7.7 Explain how specific aspects of a text's illustrations contribute to what is conveyed by the words in a story (e.g., create mood, emphasize aspects of a character or setting). 1. Compare mythological illustrations 2. Read fantasy with illustrations 3. Read historical fiction with illustrations 4. Read science fiction with illustrations 5. Read realistic fiction with illustrations 3.1.9.9 Compare and contrast the themes, settings, and plots of stories written by the same author about the same or similar characters (e.g., in books from a series). 1. Determine the themes of myths, fables, and folktales 2. Identify story elements Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 3.1.10.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature and other texts including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 2-3 text complexity band independently and proficiently. Story elements 1. Identify story elements Historical fiction 2. Read historical fiction with illustrations Fantasy 3. Read fantasy with illustrations Science fiction 4. Read science fiction with illustrations Realistic fiction 5. Read realistic fiction with illustrations 6. Read realistic fiction: set 1 7. Read realistic fiction: set 2 Poetry 8. Read poetry Myths, fables, and folktales 9. Determine the themes of myths, fables, and folktales 3.1.10.10.a Self-select texts for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks. RI Reading: Informational Text Key Ideas and Details 3.2.1.1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. Compare and contrast 1. Compare and contrast in informational texts 2. Compare information from two informational texts Cause and effect 3. Match causes and effects in informational texts Problem and solution 4. Match problems with their solutions Reading comprehension 5. Read passages about animals 6. Read passages about food, arts, and traditions 7. Read passages about sports and hobbies 8. Read passages about famous people 9. Read passages about business and technology 10. Read passages about science and nature 3.2.2.2 Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea. Main idea 1. Use key details to determine the main idea 2. Determine the main idea of a passage Key details 3. Determine the order of events in informational texts 4. Compare and contrast in informational texts 5. Match causes and effects in informational texts 6. Match problems with their solutions 7. Compare information from two informational texts Reading comprehension 8. Read passages about famous people 9. Read passages about famous places 10. Read passages about business and technology 11. Read passages about science and nature 3.2.3.3 Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect. Sequence 1. Determine the order of events in informational texts 2. Identify time-order words Compare and contrast 3. Compare and contrast in informational texts Cause and effect 4. Match causes and effects in informational texts Problem and solution 5. Match problems with their solutions Text structure 6. Identify text structures Craft and Structure 3.2.4.4 Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject area. Vocabulary in reading comprehension 1. Read passages about food, arts, and traditions 2. Read passages about sports and hobbies 3. Read passages about famous people 4. Read passages about business and technology 5. Read passages about science and nature Context clues 6. Use context to identify the meaning of a word 7. Use academic vocabulary in context 3.2.5.5 Use text features and search tools (e.g., key words, sidebars, hyperlinks) to locate information relevant to a given topic efficiently. 1. Use text features 2. Use guide words 3.2.6.6 Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author of a text. 1. Identify an author's statement of opinion Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 3.2.7.7 Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur). 1. Determine the order of events in informational texts 3.2.8.8 Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence). Sequence 1. Determine the order of events in informational texts 2. Put the sentences in order Compare and contrast 3. Compare and contrast in informational texts Cause and effect 4. Match causes with effects 5. Match causes and effects in informational texts Problem and solution 6. Match problems with their solutions Text structure 7. Identify text structures 3.2.9.9 Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic. 1. Compare and contrast in informational texts 2. Compare information from two informational texts Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 3.2.10.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 2–3 text complexity band independently and proficiently. Main idea 1. Determine the main idea of a passage History and social studies 2. Read passages about food, arts, and traditions 3. Read passages about sports and hobbies 4. Read passages about famous people 5. Read passages about famous places Science and technology 6. Read passages about animals 7. Read passages about business and technology 8. Read passages about science and nature 3.2.10.10.a Self-select texts for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks. RF Reading: Foundational Skills Phonics and Word Recognition 3.3.0.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. 3.3.0.3.a Identify and know the meaning of the most common prefixes and derivational suffixes. Prefixes 1. Determine the meaning of a word with pre-, re-, or mis- 2. Use the prefixes pre-, re-, and mis- Suffixes 3. Determine the meaning of a word with -ful or -less 4. Determine the meaning of a word with -ly or -ness 5. Determine the meaning of a word with -able or -ment 6. Determine the meaning of a word with a suffix: review Prefixes and suffixes 7. Determine the meanings of words with prefixes and suffixes: review 8. Sort words with shared prefixes and suffixes by meaning 3.3.0.3.b Decode words with common Latin suffixes. 1. Determine the meaning of a word with -able or -ment 3.3.0.3.c Decode multisyllable words. Prefixes 1. Determine the meaning of a word with pre-, re-, or mis- Suffixes 2. Determine the meaning of a word with -ful or -less 3. Determine the meaning of a word with -ly or -ness 4. Determine the meaning of a word with -able or -ment 5. Determine the meaning of a word with a suffix: review 6. Sort words with shared suffixes by part of speech Prefixes and suffixes 7. Identify base words, prefixes, and suffixes 8. Determine the meanings of words with prefixes and suffixes: review 9. Sort words with shared prefixes and suffixes by meaning Word patterns 10. Word pattern analogies 11. Word pattern sentences Greek and Latin roots 12. Use Greek and Latin roots as clues to the meanings of words 13. Determine the meanings of Greek and Latin roots 14. Determine the meanings of words with Greek and Latin roots Compound words 15. Form compound words with pictures 16. Form compound words 17. Form and use compound words 3.3.0.3.d Read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words, including high-frequency words. Fluency 3.3.0.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. 3.3.0.4.a Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. Main idea 1. Determine the main idea of a passage Theme 2. Determine the themes of myths, fables, and folktales Author's purpose 3. Identify the author's purpose: passages Sequence 4. Determine the order of events in informational texts Text structure 5. Compare and contrast in informational texts 6. Match causes with effects 7. Match causes and effects in informational texts 8. Match problems with their solutions Point of view 9. Compare information from two informational texts Inference 10. Draw inferences from a text 11. Make predictions about a story Story elements 12. Identify story elements Text comprehension: literature 13. Read fantasy with illustrations 14. Read historical fiction with illustrations 15. Read realistic fiction with illustrations 16. Read realistic fiction: set 1 17. Read realistic fiction: set 2 18. Read poetry Text comprehension: informational 19. Read passages about animals 20. Read passages about food, arts, and traditions 21. Read passages about sports and hobbies 22. Read passages about famous people 23. Read passages about famous places 24. Read passages about business and technology 25. Read passages about science and nature 3.3.0.4.b Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings. 3.3.0.4.c Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. Vocabulary in context 1. Determine the meaning of words using synonyms in context 2. Use context to identify the meaning of a word 3. Use academic vocabulary in context Multiple-meaning words 4. Which definition matches the sentence? 5. Which sentence matches the definition? Similes 6. Similes with pictures 7. Determine the meanings of similes Context clues in informational texts 8. Read passages about animals 9. Read passages about food, arts, and traditions 10. Read passages about sports and hobbies 11. Read passages about famous people 12. Read passages about famous places 13. Read passages about business and technology 14. Read passages about science and nature Context clues in literary texts 15. Read fantasy with illustrations 16. Read historical fiction with illustrations 17. Read realistic fiction with illustrations 18. Read realistic fiction: set 1 19. Read realistic fiction: set 2 W Writing Text Types and Purposes 3.6.1.1 Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons. 3.6.1.1.a Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons. Author's purpose 1. Identify the author's purpose: passages Facts and opinions 2. Distinguish facts from opinions 3. Identify an author's statement of opinion Opinions, reasons, and examples 4. Complete the opinion passage with an example 5. Complete the opinion passage with a reason 6. Complete the opinion-reason-example table Organization 7. Organize information by main idea 3.6.1.1.b Provide reasons that support the opinion. 1. Choose reasons to support an opinion 2. Complete the opinion passage with a reason 3. Complete the opinion-reason-example table 3.6.1.1.c Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons. 1. Use coordinating conjunctions 2. Use subordinating conjunctions 3. Choose the best transition 4. Use linking words to complete a passage 3.6.1.1.d Provide a concluding statement or section. 3.6.2.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. 3.6.2.2.a Introduce a topic and group related information together; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension. Topic sentences 1. Choose topic sentences for narrative paragraphs 2. Choose topic sentences for expository paragraphs Key details 3. Use key details to determine the main idea Organization 4. Put the sentences in order 5. Organize information by main idea 6. Select the detail that does not support the topic sentence 3.6.2.2.b Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details. 1. Distinguish facts from opinions 2. Choose reasons to support an opinion 3.6.2.2.c Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information. Conjunctions 1. Use coordinating conjunctions 2. Use subordinating conjunctions 3. Combine sentences: subjects and predicates Transitions 4. Choose the best transition 5. Use linking words to complete a passage 3.6.2.2.d Provide a concluding statement or section. 3.6.3.3 Write narratives and other creative texts to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences 3.6.3.3.a Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally. 1. Put the sentences in order 2. Choose topic sentences for narrative paragraphs 3. Add descriptive details to sentences 3.6.3.3.b Use dialogue and descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences and events or show the response of characters to situations. 1. Use actions and dialogue to understand characters 2. Add descriptive details to sentences 3. Show character emotions and traits 3.6.3.3.c Use temporal words and phrases to signal event order. 1. Put the sentences in order 2. Identify time-order words 3. Use time-order words 3.6.3.3.d Provide a sense of closure. Writing Process: Production and Distribution of Writing 3.6.4.4 With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose. Author's purpose 1. Identify the author's purpose: mixed media 2. Identify the author's purpose: passages 3. Choose the text that matches the writer's purpose Text structure 4. Determine the order of events in informational texts 5. Match causes and effects in informational texts 6. Match problems with their solutions 7. Identify text structures Organization 8. Organize information by main idea 3.6.5.5 With guidance and support from peers and adults, use a writing process to develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, drafting, revising, and editing. Organization 1. Put the sentences in order 2. Organize information by main idea Editing 3. Correct errors with signs 4. Is it a complete sentence or a fragment? 5. Is it a complete sentence or a run-on? 6. Is it a complete sentence, a fragment, or a run-on? 7. Identify and correct errors with plural and possessive nouns 8. Commas: review 9. Capitalization: review 10. Punctuating dialogue Revision 11. Select the detail that does not support the topic sentence 12. Choose the best transition 13. Add descriptive details to sentences 14. Revise the sentence using a stronger verb Combine sentences 15. Combine sentences: subjects and predicates 16. Combine sentences by adding key details 3.6.6.6 With guidance and support from adults, use technology to produce and publish writing (using keyboarding skills) as well as to interact and collaborate with others. Research to Build and Present Knowledge 3.6.7.7 Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic. 3.6.8.8 Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories. 1. Determine the main idea of a passage 2. Organize information by main idea Range of Writing 3.6.10.10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. 3.6.10.10.a Independently select writing topics and formats for personal enjoyment, interest, and academic tasks. L Language Conventions of Standard English 3.10.1.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. 3.10.1.1.a Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences. Nouns 1. Which word is a noun? 2. Identify nouns 3. Identify nouns – with abstract nouns 4. Identify common and proper nouns Pronouns 5. Identify personal pronouns 6. Identify possessive pronouns Verbs 7. Identify action verbs 8. Identify main verbs and helping verbs Adjectives 9. Does the adjective tell you what kind or how many? 10. Identify the adjective that describes the noun 11. Identify adjectives Adverbs 12. Does the adverb tell you how, when, or where? 13. Identify adverbs 3.10.1.1.b Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns. 1. Form regular plurals with -s, -es, and -ies 2. Use regular plurals with -s, -es, and -ies 3. Form and use irregular plurals 3.10.1.1.c Use abstract nouns (e.g., childhood). 1. Identify nouns – with abstract nouns 3.10.1.1.d Form and use regular and irregular verbs. Irregular past tense 1. Form and use the irregular past tense: set 1 2. Form and use the irregular past tense: set 2 3. Form and use the irregular past tense: set 3 4. Form and use the irregular past tense: set 4 5. Form and use the irregular past tense: set 5 Action verbs 6. Use action verbs To be 7. To be: use the correct form To have 8. To have: use the correct form 3.10.1.1.e Form and use the simple (e.g., I walked; I walk; I will walk) verb tenses. 1. Form and use the regular past tense 2. Is the sentence in the past, present, or future tense? 3. Change the sentence to future tense 3.10.1.1.f Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement. 1. Replace the noun with a personal pronoun 2. Is the subject singular or plural? 3. Use the correct subject or verb 4. Pronoun-verb agreement 3.10.1.1.g Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified. 1. Choose between adjectives and adverbs 2. Use adjectives to compare 3. Spell adjectives that compare 4. Use adverbs to compare 3.10.1.1.h Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions. Coordinating conjunctions 1. Use coordinating conjunctions 2. Identify coordinating conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions 3. Use subordinating conjunctions 4. Identify subordinating conjunctions 3.10.1.1.i Produce simple, compound, and complex sentences. Sentences, fragments, and run-ons 1. Is it a complete sentence or a fragment? 2. Is it a complete sentence or a run-on? 3. Is it a complete sentence, a fragment, or a run-on? Subjects and predicates 4. Identify the complete subject of a sentence 5. Identify the complete predicate of a sentence Sentence structure 6. Create varied sentences based on models 7. Order the words to create a sentence Compound sentences 8. Create compound sentences 3.10.2.2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. 3.10.2.2.a Capitalize appropriate words in titles. 1. Capitalizing titles 3.10.2.2.b Use commas in addresses. 1. Commas with the names of places 3.10.2.2.c Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue. 1. Punctuating dialogue 3.10.2.2.d Form and use possessives. 1. Form the singular or plural possessive 3.10.2.2.e Use conventional spelling for high-frequency and other studied words and for adding suffixes to base words (e.g., sitting, smiled, cries, happiness). Word patterns 1. Word pattern analogies 2. Word pattern sentences Homophones 3. Homophones with pictures 4. Use the correct homophone Regular plurals 5. Form regular plurals with -s, -es, and -ies 6. Use regular plurals with -s, -es, and -ies Irregular plurals 7. Form and use irregular plurals 8. Form and use the regular past tense Irregular past tense 9. Form and use the irregular past tense: set 1 10. Form and use the irregular past tense: set 2 11. Form and use the irregular past tense: set 3 12. Form and use the irregular past tense: set 4 13. Form and use the irregular past tense: set 5 Contractions 14. Pronoun-verb contractions 15. Contractions with "not" Comparative adjectives 16. Spell adjectives that compare 3.10.2.2.f Use spelling patterns and generalizations (e.g., word families, position-based spellings, syllable patterns, ending rules, meaningful word parts) in writing words. Word patterns 1. Word pattern analogies 2. Word pattern sentences Regular plurals 3. Form regular plurals with -s, -es, and -ies 4. Use regular plurals with -s, -es, and -ies Regular past tense 5. Form and use the regular past tense Contractions 6. Pronoun-verb contractions 7. Contractions with "not" Comparative adjectives 8. Spell adjectives that compare 3.10.2.2.g Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings. 1. Use guide words Knowledge of Language 3.10.3.3 Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. 3.10.3.3.a Choose words and phrases for effect. Descriptive details 1. Sort sensory details 2. Show character emotions and traits Synonyms and antonyms 3. Choose the synonym 4. Choose the antonym Shades of meaning 5. Shades of meaning with pictures 6. Describe the difference between related words 7. Positive and negative connotation 3.10.3.3.b Recognize and observe differences between the conventions of spoken and written standard English. Vocabulary Acquisition and Use 3.10.4.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning word and phrases based on grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. 3.10.4.4.a Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. Academic vocabulary 1. Use academic vocabulary in context Vocabulary in context 2. Find synonyms in context 3. Find antonyms in context 4. Determine the meaning of words using synonyms in context 5. Use context to identify the meaning of a word Multiple-meaning words 6. Which definition matches the sentence? 7. Which sentence matches the definition? Similes 8. Similes with pictures 9. Determine the meanings of similes Academic vocabulary in fictional texts 10. Read realistic fiction: set 1 11. Read realistic fiction: set 2 Academic vocabulary in informational texts 12. Read passages about animals 13. Read passages about food, arts, and traditions 14. Read passages about sports and hobbies 15. Read passages about famous people 16. Read passages about famous places 17. Read passages about business and technology 18. Read passages about science and nature 3.10.4.4.b Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known affix is added to a known word (e.g., agreeable/disagreeable, comfortable/uncomfortable, care/careless, heat/preheat). Prefixes 1. Determine the meaning of a word with pre-, re-, or mis- 2. Use the prefixes pre-, re-, and mis- Suffixes 3. Determine the meaning of a word with -ful or -less 4. Determine the meaning of a word with -ly or -ness 5. Determine the meaning of a word with -able or -ment 6. Determine the meaning of a word with a suffix: review Prefixes and suffixes 7. Determine the meanings of words with prefixes and suffixes: review 8. Sort words with shared prefixes and suffixes by meaning 3.10.4.4.c Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., company, companion). 1. Use Greek and Latin roots as clues to the meanings of words 2. Determine the meanings of Greek and Latin roots 3. Determine the meanings of words with Greek and Latin roots 3.10.4.4.d Use glossaries or beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. 1. Use guide words 2. Use dictionary entries 3. Use dictionary definitions 3.10.5.5 Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings to develop word consciousness. 3.10.5.5.a Distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings of words and phrases in context (e.g., take steps). 1. Determine the meanings of similes 2. Choose the picture that matches the idiomatic expression 3.10.5.5.b Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe people who are friendly or helpful). Character descriptions 1. Use actions and dialogue to understand characters 2. Show character emotions and traits Shades of meaning 3. Shades of meaning with pictures 4. Describe the difference between related words Action verbs 5. Use action verbs Adjectives 6. Does the adjective tell you what kind or how many? Academic vocabulary 7. Use academic vocabulary in context 3.10.5.5.c Distinguish shades of meaning among related words that describe states of mind or degrees of certainty (e.g., knew, believed, suspected, heard, wondered). 1. Shades of meaning with pictures 2. Describe the difference between related words 3. Positive and negative connotation 3.10.6.6 Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships (e.g., After dinner that night we went looking for them). Academic vocabulary 1. Use academic vocabulary in context Vocabulary in context 2. Determine the meaning of words using synonyms in context 3. Use context to identify the meaning of a word Prefixes 4. Determine the meaning of a word with pre-, re-, or mis- 5. Use the prefixes pre-, re-, and mis- Suffixes 6. Determine the meaning of a word with -ful or -less 7. Determine the meaning of a word with -ly or -ness 8. Determine the meaning of a word with -able or -ment 9. Determine the meaning of a word with a suffix: review Prefixes and suffixes 10. Determine the meanings of words with prefixes and suffixes: review Greek and Latin roots 11. Use Greek and Latin roots as clues to the meanings of words 12. Determine the meanings of Greek and Latin roots 13. Determine the meanings of words with Greek and Latin roots Homophones 14. Homophones with pictures 15. Use the correct homophone Shades of meaning 16. Shades of meaning with pictures 17. Positive and negative connotation Time-order words 18. Identify time-order words Sense words 19. Sort sensory details Conjunctions 20. Use subordinating conjunctions Prepositions 21. Identify prepositions
  • 33 Lessons

    Math 3rd grade

    Make a guess: What is the single most important year of an individual’s academic career? The answer isn’t junior year of high school, or senior year of college. It’s third grade. Children who haven’t made the leap to fast, fluent reading begin at this moment to fall behind, and for most of them the gap will continue to grow